Category Archives: CentOS

MySQL: How do I dump each record from a table to a separate files in csv format?

I honestly do not know why somebody would want to export each record from a table in to its’ own files in a csv format. I am sure people have their own reasons. But since I got request from couple people, I figure I would post a solution here. Same script can be used to dump the whole table in to one csv file as well, with little tweaking. I will start with creating database with a table. I then insert three rows with test data into the table just to show three separate files creation.

mysql> CREATE DATABASE testdump;
mysql> USE testdump
mysql> CREATE TABLE `testtable` (
`id` TINYINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY ,
`testfield` VARCHAR( 15 ) NOT NULL ,
`testfield2` VARCHAR( 15 ) NOT NULL
) ENGINE = innodb COMMENT = 'test table for dumping each row to file';
mysql> INSERT INTO `testtable` values ('','test1','test2'),('','test3','test4'),('','test5','test6');
mysql> select * from testtable;
+----+-----------+------------+
| id | testfield | testfield2 |
+----+-----------+------------+
| 1 | test1 | test2 |
| 2 | test3 | test4 |
| 3 | test5 | test6 |
+----+-----------+------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Now we create a php script which we can use to select data from MySQL database and save it to a file under /tmp directory. You can easily modify this script to save it somewhere else, pull from multiple tables and/or save with different delimiter.

<?php
$link = mysql_connect('localhost', 'username', 'password');
if (!$link) {
die('Could not connect: ' . mysql_error());
}
$db = mysql_select_db('testdump',$link);
//specify what query to use to pull data.
$select = "SELECT * FROM `testtable`";
$result = mysql_query($select);
while($myrow = mysql_fetch_array($result))
{
extract($myrow);
//specify what query to use for create text files with csv data
//in our case we create files with testtable_ and ID which is unique
//per row. We use the same ID in where clause to limit one record at a time
//modify this part to your needs. Eg change delimiter from , to - or something else
$export = "
SELECT * INTO OUTFILE '/tmp/testtable_$id.txt'
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '\"'
LINES TERMINATED BY '\n'
FROM testtable where id=$id";
mysql_query($export);
}//loop until we are done exporting all records.
mysql_close($link);
?>

You can run this script from command line if you have php cli installed by issuing: php filename.php

Above example is a very simple example. t is merely a proof of concept. You can modify it to do whatever you need it to do. I would also put some error checking, not use extract() function, etc before using it in production environment.

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DISCLAIMER: Please be smart and use code found on internet carefully. Make backups often. And yeah.. last but not least.. I am not responsible for any damage caused by this posting. Use at your own risk.

Linux: How do you rename a user account in linux?

In Linux, there is no command which will rename a user account. If you make a mistake creating a user account, user changes their name or if user does not like his user name, there is no real easy way of going and making the change. Only thing I know you can do is to go through some files and rename user manually. Let us say that we have a user who is named joe and we want to rename him to john.

Note: you must be logged in as root to do following.

vi /etc/passwd
find joe and change it to john, save/exit

vi /etc/group
find joe and change it to john, save/exit

vi /etc/shadow
find joe and change it to john. This file is read only and you have to force overwrite it. In vi it is :w! once saved, quit.

cd /home
mv joe john

And that should do the trick.

[Edited] Right after I posted this post, I was contacted and was told to look at utility called usermod. Read more about it man usermod. Got to love the quick responses.

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DISCLAIMER: Please be smart and use code found on internet carefully. Make backups often. And yeah.. last but not least.. I am not responsible for any damage caused by this posting. Use at your own risk.

MySQL: How do you use symlinks with MySQL tables?

Creating table symlinks in MySQL is very easy and it is probably one of the features a lot of MySQL users overlook or never think about. You may ask, why would I want to use symlinks? Some of the reasons you would want symlinks is if you are running low on disk space on the partition where your data generally is and/or you want to move one (or more) table(s) on to a different disk/partition for performance reasons.

One of the things worth mentioning is that MySQL documentation states: “Symlinks are fully supported only for MyISAM tables. For files used by tables for other storage engines, you may get strange problems if you try to use symbolic links.” Keeping that in mind, if you have a innodb table and would like to create symlinks for, you should change the engine type to myisam before symlinking. Although, I have heard and personally used symlinks for innodb databases with no side affects.

First let us find out if your MySQL configuration allows symlinks:

mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'have_symlink'\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
Variable_name: have_symlink
Value: YES

I am going to make following assumptions:

  • MySQL installation is in /usr/local/mysql.
  • You want to create new tables under /mnt/another_partition/mysql/var
    1. you must create the dir: mkdir /mnt/another_partition/mysql/var -p
    2. Make it owned by mysql user: chown mysql /mnt/another_partition/mysql/var

We will create some test data. Following are the steps:

mysql> create database db1;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.05 sec)
mysql> use db1;
Database changed
mysql> CREATE TABLE `users` ( `id` int(11) default NULL, `name` varchar(255) default NULL ) ENGINE=myisam, data directory="/mnt/another_partition/mysql/var", index directory="/mnt/another_partition/mysql/var";
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.09 sec)
mysql> show tables;
+---------------+
| Tables_in_db1 |
+---------------+
| users |
+---------------+

Drop back to command prompt and “ls” your db1 directory as shown below. Here you can see that users table’s data file (users.MYD) is a symbolic link to the location we specified. You can see that users index file (users.MYI) is symlinked to the location we specified as well.

# ls -al /usr/local/mysql/var/db1/
total 24K
drwx------ 2 mysql mysql 4.0K May 2 00:03 ./
drwx------ 23 mysql mysql 4.0K May 1 23:59 ../
-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 65 May 1 09:33 db.opt
-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 8.4K May 2 00:03 users.frm
lrwxrwxrwx 1 mysql mysql 42 May 2 00:03 users.MYD -> /mnt/another_partition/mysql/var/users.MYD
lrwxrwxrwx 1 mysql mysql 42 May 2 00:03 users.MYI -> /mnt/another_partition/mysql/var/users.MYI

Here are the real files which above symlinks are pointing to:

# ls -al /mnt/another_partition/mysql/var/
total 12K
drwxr-xr-x 2 mysql root 4.0K May 2 00:03 ./
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4.0K May 1 23:39 ../
-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 0 May 2 00:03 users.MYD
-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 1.0K May 2 00:03 users.MYI

If you go back in to mysql prompt and insert couple rows, you can see the size of users.MYD increase:

mysql> insert into db1.users values (1,"test1");
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
mysql> insert into db1.users values (2,"test2");
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
# ls -al /mnt/another_partition/mysql/var/
total 16K
drwxr-xr-x 2 mysql root 4.0K May 2 00:03 ./
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4.0K May 1 23:39 ../
-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 40 May 2 00:08 users.MYD
-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 1.0K May 2 00:08 users.MYI

If you already have data file and index file you would like to move, I recommend shutting down your MySQL server and moving the files manually and create symbolic links by using “ln -s” command. You can read more about ln by doing man ls

NOTE: Even though MySQL documentation says this is only supported 100% for myisam tables, I have read few posts where people say they have done this with innodb tables without any problems. If anybody else can comment on this, I would greatly appreciate it.

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DISCLAIMER: Please be smart and use code found on internet carefully. Make backups often. And yeah.. last but not least.. I am not responsible for any damage caused by this posting. Use at your own risk.

MySQL: Solution for ERROR 1442 (HY000): Can’t update table ‘t1’ in stored function/trigger because it is already used by statement which invoked this stored function/trigger.

Here is a sample table you can create to test following problem/solution on:

CREATE TABLE `t1` (
`a` char(1) default NULL,
`b` smallint(6) default NULL
);
insert into t1 values ('y','1');

I have a table t1 which has column a and b, I want column a to be updated to ‘n’ when column b = 0. Here is the first version I created:

DELIMITER |
CREATE TRIGGER trigger1 AFTER UPDATE ON t1
FOR EACH ROW UPDATE t1 SET a= 'n' WHERE b=0;
|
DELIMITER ;

The trigger created successfully but I got this error when I tried to do an update on column b on table t1:
mysql> update t1 set b=0;
ERROR 1442 (HY000): Can't update table 't1' in stored function/trigger because it is already used by statement which invoked this stored function/trigger.

After searching online for a while and trying different solutions, I finally found a way to update the table which has trigger on it:

drop trigger trigger1;
DELIMITER |
CREATE TRIGGER trigger1 BEFORE UPDATE ON t1
FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
IF NEW.b=0 THEN
SET NEW.a = 'n';
END IF;
END
|
DELIMITER ;

After the new trigger is in, I issued the same update query and “ERROR 1442 (HY000): Can’t update table ‘t1’ in stored function/trigger because it is already used by statement which invoked this stored function/trigger.” didn’t show up and it updated the col a value to “n” as it suppose to.

mysql> update t1 set b=0;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
Rows matched: 1 Changed: 1 Warnings: 0
mysql> select * from t1\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
a: n
b: 0

Therefore, if you want to create a trigger on the table which will update itself, make sure you use the NEW.column_name to refer to the row after it’s updated and don’t do the full update statement!

However, if you are updating some other table, then you can use the regular update statement:

DELIMITER |
CREATE TRIGGER trigger1 AFTER UPDATE ON t1
FOR EACH ROW UPDATE t2 SET a= 'n' WHERE b=0;
|
DELIMITER ;

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DISCLAIMER: Please be smart and use code found on internet carefully. Make backups often. And yeah.. last but not least.. I am not responsible for any damage caused by this posting. Use at your own risk.

MySQL: How do you set up master-master replication in MySQL? (CentOS, RHEL, Fedora)

Setting up master-master replication in MySQL is very similar to how we set up master/slave replication. You can read up about how to setup master/slave replication in my previous post: How to set up master/slave replication in MySQL. There is obviously pros and cons about using master/master replication. But this is not a post which discuses advantages and disadvantages for using master/master replication. One of the differences between master/master set up and master/slave is that in master/master set up, you have true redundancy. If one server dies, second server can take all the inserts/selects. In master/slave setup, if master dies, you will have to go through steps to make slave become the master. Master/master set up we are going to set up is essentially master/slave and slave/master. Meaning, if you had two servers, db0 and db1, your setup will be db0(master)/db1(slave) and also db0(slave)/db1(master). Here are some assumptions:

Master1 server ip: 10.0.0.1
Master2 server ip: 10.0.0.2
Slave username: slaveuser
Slave pw: slavepw
Your data directory is: /usr/local/mysql/var/

Let us go through the steps you must take on Master1 to enable it to act as master and slave by using following configuration which goes under [mysqld] section:

# let's make it so auto increment columns behave by having different increments on both servers
auto_increment_increment=2
auto_increment_offset=1
# Replication Master Server
# binary logging is required for replication
log-bin=master1-bin
binlog-ignore-db=mysql
binlog-ignore-db=test
# required unique id between 1 and 2^32 - 1
server-id = 1
#following is the slave settings so this server can connect to master2
master-host = 10.0.0.2
master-user = slaveuser
master-password = slavepw
master-port = 3306

Following is the configuration which goes on master2 under [mysqld] section:

# let's make it so auto increment columns behave by having different increments on both servers
auto_increment_increment=2
auto_increment_offset=2
# Replication Master Server
# binary logging is required for replication
log-bin=master2-bin
binlog-ignore-db=mysql
binlog-ignore-db=test
# required unique id between 1 and 2^32 - 1
server-id = 2
#following is the slave settings so this server can connect to master2
master-host = 10.0.0.1
master-user = slaveuser
master-password = slavepw
master-port = 3306

On master1 server, go to mysql> prompt and add the appropriate user:

mysql> grant replication slave on *.* to [email protected]'10.0.0.2' identified by 'slavepw';

On master2 server do the same but allow right ip:

mysql> grant replication slave on *.* to [email protected]'10.0.0.1' identified by 'slavepw';

Restart both of the master servers and check slave status:

mysql> show slave status\G

That is all you have to do to set up the replication. Of course there are a lot more configuration options but this should get your replication going and you can tweak from here on.

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DISCLAIMER: Please be smart and use code found on internet carefully. Make backups often. And yeah.. last but not least.. I am not responsible for any damage caused by this posting. Use at your own risk.