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Apache/http monitoring: monitor http traffic in realtime using httptop


Server monitoring is a big part of running a solid web site.  As an admin, you must know what is going on your server.  One of the tools most Linux/Unix admins are used to is called “top”.  “top” by itself is a very powerful tool.  Here is a quick guide on how to read output from top:  introduction to load averages under top.  It just makes sense that somebody went and created httptop to monitor http traffic.

Install perl modules:

install Term::ReadKey
install File::Tail
install Time::HiRes

Now copy paste the script below and save it in a location and set +x attribute on it so you can execute it.  On my setup, I have the script under /usr/bin/httptop:

#!/usr/bin/perl -w
use Time::HiRes qw( time );
use File::Tail (  );
use Term::ReadKey;
use Getopt::Std;
use strict;
### Defaults you might be interested in adjusting.
my $Update = 2; # update every n secs
my $Backtrack = 250; # backtrack n lines on startup
my @Paths = qw(
%
/title/%/logs/access_log
/var/log/httpd/%/access_log
/usr/local/apache/logs/%/access_log
);
my $Log_Format = "combined";
my %Log_Fields = (
combined => [qw/ Host x x Time URI Response x Referer Client /],
vhost => [qw/ VHost Host x x Time URI Response x Referer Client /]
);
### Constants & other thingies. Nothing to see here. Move along.
my $Version = "0.4.1";
sub by_hits_per (  ) { $b->{Rate} <=> $a->{Rate} }
sub by_total (  ) { $b->{Total} <=> $a->{Total} }
sub by_age (  ) { $a->{Last} <=> $b->{Last} }
my $last_field = "Client";
my $index = "Host";
my $show_help = 0;
my $order = \&by_hits_per;
my $Help = "htlwufd?q";
my %Keys = (
h => [ "Order by hits/second" => sub { $order = \&by_hits_per } ],
t => [ "Order by total recorded hits" => sub { $order = \&by_total } ],
l => [ "Order by most recent hits" => sub { $order = \&by_age } ],
w => [ "Show remote host" => sub { $index = "Host" } ],
u => [ "Show requested URI" => sub { $index = "URI" } ],
f => [ "Show referring URL" => sub { $index = "Referer" } ],
d => [ "Show referring domain" => sub { $index = "Domain" } ],
'?' => [ "Help (this thing here)" => sub { $show_help++ } ],
q => [ "Quit" => sub { exit } ]
);
my @Display_Fields = qw/ Host Date URI Response Client Referer Domain /;
my @Record_Fields = qw/ Host URI Referer Domain /;
my $Max_Index_Width = 50;
my $Initial_TTL = 50;
my @Months = qw/ Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Nov Dec /;
my %Term = (
HOME => "\033[H",
CLS => "\033[2J",
START_TITLE => "\033]0;", # for xterms etc.
END_TITLE => "\007",
START_RV => "\033[7m",
END_RV => "\033[m"
);
my ( %hist, %opt, $spec );
$SIG{INT} = sub { exit };
END { ReadMode 0 };
### Subs.
sub refresh_output
{
my ( $cols, $rows ) = GetTerminalSize;
my $show = $rows - 3;
my $count = $show;
my $now = (shift || time);
for my $type ( values %hist ) {
for my $peer ( values %$type ) {
# if ( --$peer->{_Ttl} > 0 ) {
my $delta = $now - $peer->{Start};
if ( $delta >= 1 ) {
$peer->{ Rate } = $peer->{ Total } / $delta;
} else {
$peer->{ Rate } = 0
}
$peer->{ Last } = int( $now - $peer->{ Date } );
# } else {
# delete $type->{$peer}
# }
}
}
$count = scalar( values %{$hist{$index}} ) - 1 if $show >= scalar values %{$hist{$index}};
my @list = ( sort $order values %{$hist{$index}} )[ 0 .. $count ];
my $first = 0;
$first = ( $first <= $_ ? $_ + 1 : $first ) for map { $_ ? length($_->{$index}) : 0 } @list;
$first = $Max_Index_Width if $Max_Index_Width < $first;
print $Term{START_TITLE}, "Monitoring $spec at: ", scalar localtime, $Term{END_TITLE} if $ENV{TERM} eq "xterm"; # UGLY!!!
my $help = "Help/?";
my $head = sprintf( "%-${first}s %6s %4s %4s %s (%d total)",
$index, qw{ Hits/s Tot Last }, $last_field,
scalar keys %{$hist{$index}}
);
#
# Truncate status line if need be
#
$head = substr($head, 0, ($cols - length($help)));
print @Term{"HOME", "START_RV"}, $head, " " x ($cols - length($head) - length($help)), $help, $Term{END_RV}, "\n";
for ( @list ) {
# $_->{_Ttl}++;
my $line = sprintf( "%-${first}s %6.3f %4d %3d %s",
substr( $_->{$index}, 0, $Max_Index_Width ), @$_{(qw{ Rate Total Last }, $last_field)} );
if ( length($line) > $cols ) {
substr( $line, $cols - 1 ) = "";
} else {
$line .= " " x ($cols - length($line));
}
print $line, "\n";
}
print " " x $cols, "\n" while $count++ < $show;
}
sub process_line
{
my $line = shift;
my $now = ( shift || time );
my %hit;
chomp $line;
@hit{@{$Log_Fields{$Log_Format}}} = grep( $_, split( /"([^"]+)"|\[([^]]+)\]|\s/o, $line ) );
$hit{ URI } =~ s/HTTP\/1\S+//gos;
$hit{ Referer } = "<unknown>" if not $hit{Referer} or $hit{Referer} eq "-";
( $hit{Domain} = $hit{Referer} ) =~ s#^\w+://([^/]+).*$#$1#os;
$hit{ Client } ||= "<none>";
$hit{ Client } =~ s/Mozilla\/[\w.]+ \(compatible; /(/gos;
$hit{ Client } =~ s/[^\x20-\x7f]//gos;
# if $now is negative, try to guess how old the hit is based on the time stamp.
if ( $now < 0 ) {
my @hit_t = ( split( m![:/\s]!o, $hit{ Time } ))[ 0 .. 5 ];
my @now_t = ( localtime )[ 3, 4, 5, 2, 1, 0 ];
my @mag = ( 3600, 60, 1 );
# If the hit didn't parse right, or didn't happen today, the hell with it.
return unless $hit_t[2] == ( $now_t[2] + 1900 )
and $hit_t[1] eq $Months[ $now_t[1] ]
and $hit_t[0] == $now_t[0];
splice( @hit_t, 0, 3 );
splice( @now_t, 0, 3 );
# Work backward to the UNIX time of the hit.
$now = time;
$now -= (shift( @now_t ) - shift( @hit_t )) * $_ for ( 3600, 60, 1 );
}
$hit{ Date } = $now;
for my $field ( @Record_Fields ) {
my $peer = ( $hist{$field}{$hit{$field}} ||= { Start => $now, _Ttl => $Initial_TTL } );
@$peer{ @Display_Fields } = @hit{ @Display_Fields };
$peer->{ Total }++;
}
}
sub display_help {
my $msg = "httptop v.$Version";
print @Term{qw/ HOME CLS START_RV /}, $msg, $Term{END_RV}, "\n\n";
print " " x 4, $_, " " x 8, $Keys{$_}[0], "\n" for ( split "", $Help );
print "\nPress any key to continue.\n";
}
### Init.
getopt( 'frb' => \%opt );
$Backtrack = $opt{b} if $opt{b};
$Update = $opt{r} if $opt{r};
$Log_Format = $opt{f} if $opt{f};
$spec = $ARGV[0];
die <<End unless $spec and $Log_Fields{$Log_Format};
Usage: $0 [-f <format>] [-r <refresh_secs>] [-b <backtrack_lines>] <logdir | path_to_log>
Valid formats are: @{[ join ", ", keys %Log_Fields ]}.
End
for ( @Paths ) {
last if -r $spec;
( $spec = $_ ) =~ s/%/$ARGV[0]/gos;
}
die "No access_log $ARGV[0] found.\n" unless -r $spec;
my $file = File::Tail->new(
name => $spec,
interval => $Update / 2,
maxinterval => $Update,
tail => $Backtrack,
nowait => 1
) or die "$spec: $!";
my $last_update = time;
my ( $line, $now );
# Backtracking.
while ( $Backtrack-- > 0 ) {
last unless $line = $file->read;
process_line( $line, -1 );
}
$file->nowait( 0 );
ReadMode 4; # Echo off.
print @Term{"HOME", "CLS"}; # Home & clear.
refresh_output;
### Main loop.
while (defined( $line = $file->read )) {
$now = time;
process_line( $line, $now );
while ( $line = lc ReadKey(-1) ) {
$show_help = 0 if $show_help;
$Keys{$line}[1]->(  ) if $Keys{$line};
}
if ( $show_help == 1 ) {
display_help;
$show_help++; # Don't display help again.
} elsif ( $now - $last_update > $Update and not $show_help ) {
$last_update = $now;
refresh_output( $now );
}
}

Save/exit and make sure you make it executable by setting it to +x (chmod +x httptop)

Now you can run httptop by typing:  httptop -f combined -r 1 /usr/local/apache2/logs/access_log

NOTE:  Your access_log file might be in different location.  Point to the right location.  This sets the refresh rate to 1 sec (-r 1).  Now you can run httptop any time you want to checkout how your http traffic is doing.  Remember to press “?” to get help once you are in.

—————

DISCLAIMER: As always, if you find any inaccurate information, please comment and let me know. When you do comment, make sure you give me some references to confirm.


5 Responses to “ Apache/http monitoring: monitor http traffic in realtime using httptop ”

  1. August 12th, 2008 | 1:08 pm

    Did you get that massive script from somewhere or did you write it?

  2. August 12th, 2008 | 1:10 pm

    I found it online long time ago. I do not remember where it was. I don’t have mad perl skills to write that. :)

  3. August 12th, 2008 | 1:14 pm

    After quick google search, I just found it on o’reilly site: http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/h/65

    It has more content then the script I have but I believe this is probably where it originated from (?) I don’t know if copying pasting that would work and how much work it would be to modify it to work but if somebody tries it and find it different/more useful, let me know.

  4. January 5th, 2009 | 9:29 am

    install help :(

  5. March 20th, 2010 | 11:45 pm

    I was looking for a linux command line to show the current requests on http.

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